Neutrino Detection

Papers Lehtinen NG, Adam S, Gratta G, et al. “Sensitivity of an underwater acoustic array to ultra-high energy neutrinos”. ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS 17 (3): 279-292 JUN 2002.

MAKAI Experiment

Mike Buckingham’s team deployed the Fly-By array at two sites, one shallow (15 m) and one deep (100 m), during the Makai experiment (10/21/05 to 10/28/05). The array was deployed from a small boat chartered from a local dive shop. A Maule MXT7-180 STOL aircraft, chartered from Air Ventures Hawaii, was used to overfly the array. To make the upper … Read More

Doppler Spectroscopy

Papers Buckingham MJ. “Inversion of the Propeller Harmonics from a Light Aircraft for the Geoacoustic Properties of Marine Sediments“, 2nd Workshop on Experimental Acoustic Inversion Methods for Assessmenmt of the Shallow Water Environment, Ischia, Italy, 28-30 June 2004, eds.  J-P. Hermand, S. Jesus, A. Caiti and R. Chapman, Kluwer, Dordrecht, in press. (INVITED paper). Buckingham MJ. “Wave and Material Properties … Read More


Papers Buckingham MJ. “On surface-generated ambient noise in an upward refracting ocean“. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS: PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING 346 (1680): 321-352 FEB 15 1994.

Ambient Reef Noise

Papers Freeman, S. E., Freeman, L. A., Lammers, M. O., and Buckingham, M. J. “Spatial characterization of coral reef sounds in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands using an Bi-linear hydrophone array”, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 137, 30 (2015) Freeman, S. E., Rohwer, F. L., Spain, G. L., Friedlander, A. M., Gregg, A. K., Sandin, S. A. and Buckingham, M. J. “The origins of ambient biological sound … Read More

Ambient Noise

Papers: Carbone NM, Deane GB, Buckingham MJ. “Estimating the compressional and shear wave speeds of a shallow water seabed from the vertical coherence of ambient noise in the water column“. JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA 103 (2): 801-813 FEB 1998. Deane GB, Buckingham MJ, Tindle CT. “Vertical coherence of ambient noise in shallow water overlying a fluid seabed“. … Read More


DeepSound is a high-bandwidth acoustic recording, free-falling system designed to profile ambient noise from the surface to depths of 12 km. The recording platform is autonomous and descends under gravity at 0.5 m/s to its pre-programmed maximum depth, where a burn wire releases a weight, permitting the system to return to the surface under its own buoyancy. Movies DeepSound III … Read More

Aircraft Sound

  These are some sample recordings made on two different airplanes: the Cessna 172SP and the Diamond Star. All recordings are closest point of approach. A gain was applied when converting the data into a wave file to bring the recordings into audible range. The gain was 500 for Hydrophone 1 (H1) and the microphone. The gain was 4000 for … Read More

Bubble Acoustics

This study investigates the acoustic emissions of a water jet impinging on a flat surface of water and applies the acoustics to the study of the hydrodynamics and entrainment characteristics of the jet. As the jet penetrates the surface, air is entrained in the form of bubbles which produce sound by various mechanisms including amplification of turbulent noise, collective bubble … Read More

FlyBy Array

  Specs VLA 11 ITC hydrophones Quadruple nested with 5 elements per nesting: 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz. Built in compass and tilt sensor Hand deployable ITC 6050C Hydrophones Sea state zero with -157 dB re 1v/uPa 30 to 75000 Hz omnidirectional response Built-in low noise 20 dB preamp Sediment phones Phones buried ~1m deep Reson TC4014 Hydrophones Compressional … Read More